A Brief Chronology of Ancient Roman History
1184 BC The legendary arrival of the Trojan hero, Aeneas into Italy.
800-600 BC Iron Age huts and burials in Rome.
753-510 BC Legendary dates for the Seven Kings of Rome.
509-27 BC THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
509 BC The Temple of Capitoline Jupiter dedicated by Lucius Junius Brutus.
390 BC Gauls sack Rome.
Ca. 350 BC The city walls of Rome are completed.
325-304 BC Rome fights the Samnites.
298-290 BC Rome fights the Etruscans and Gauls.
264-241 BC The First Punic War, with Carthage.
218-201 BC The Second Punic War, Hannibal invades Italy. Battle of Cannae 216 BC.
211, 209 BC Rome sacks Syracuse and Tarentum, takes Greek works of art to Rome.
192-189 BC War with Seleucid King, Anthiochus III of Syria.
168 BC Rome defeats Macedon at Pydna
149-146 BC The Third Punic War, Carthage is razed.
133 BC Rome inherits the Kingdom of Pergamon from the Attalids.
133-31 BC THE DECLINE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
133-121 BC The Agrarian and Social reforms of the Gracchi brothers.
111-105 BC War with King Jugurtha of Numidia.
102-101 BC Invading German Tribes, the Teutones and the Cimbri, defeated by Marius.
90-88 BC The Social war with the uprising states of Italy.
86 BC Athens is sacked by Sulla, Mithridates of Pontus is defeated.
86-82 BC Civil War between Sulla and Marius for control of Senate.
81-79 BC Dictatorship of Sulla. 71 BC, the revolt of the gladiator Spartacus is put down by Crassus.
59-48 BC Struggle of power between Pompey and Julius Caesar.
59-53 BC The First Triumvirate: Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey.
8-50 BC Julius Caesar campaigns in Gaul and Britain, defeats Vercingetorix at Alesia in 52 BC.
53 BC Crassus is defeated and killed by the Parthians at Carrhae.
48 BC Defeat and death of Pompey.
44 BC Julius Caesar is murdered in the Roman Senate.
43 BC The Second Triumvirate: Octavian (Augustus), Antony, Lepidus.
42 BC Battle of Philippi, Antony and Octavian defeat Brutus and Cassius.
36-32 BC Antony in Alexandria, marries Cleopatra VII.
31 BC Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at Actium.
30 BC Suicides of Antony and Cleopatra.
27 BC-14 AD Reign of Augustus and Livia. In 9 AD, three Roman legions led by Varus are annhilated at Tuetoberg Forest.
14-37 AD Reign of Tiberius.
37-41 AD Reign of Gaius (Caligula).
41-54 AD Reign of Claudius. Rome invades Britain in 43 AD.
43 AD Conquest of southern Britain.
54-68 AD Reign of Nero. The Celtic British Queen of the Iceni, Boudicca revolts in 61AD.
64 AD Rome burns, Christians are first persecuted.
68-69 AD Civil wars, Reigns of Otho, Galba, Vitellius.
69-79 AD Reign of Vespasian, founder of the Flavian Dynasty.
70 AD Jerusalem taken by Titus.
79-81 AD Reign of Titus.
79 AD Eruption of Mount Vesuvius buries Pompei.
80 AD The Flavian Amphitheatre (The Colosseum) is dedicated by Titus.
81-96 AD Reign of Domitian.
83 AD War with Germans.
96-98 AD Reign of Nerva, Forum of Nerva built.
98 117 AD Reign of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, and Basilica Ulpia built.
100 AD Colony founded at Timgad (Algeria).
101-106 AD War with Decebalus of Dacia (Romania), Rome captures 5 million pounds of gold.
113-117 AD War with the Parthians, Roman legions advance as far as the Persian Gulf.
115 AD Earthquake at Antioch.
117-138 AD Reign of Hadrian, Pantheon and Villa at Tivoli built.
121-123 AD Hadrian travels in Gaul, Britain, Spain, Greece, Africa, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt.
130 AD Death of Hadrian's boyfriend, Antinous, followed by official mourning and cult status.
138-161 AD Reign of Antoninus Pius.
161-169 AD Joint rule of Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius.
169-180 AD Reign of Marcus Aurelius.
170-176 AD War with and victory over the Germans and Sarmatians.
177-180 AD Second war with the Germans.
178 AD Earthquake in Smyrna
170-180 AD Pausanias writes, A Guide to Greece.
180-193 AD Reign of Commodus.
193-211 AD Reign of Septimus Severus (Wife:Julia Domna, sons: Geta & Caracalla).
197-199 AD War with Parthians in Mesopotamia.
203-204 AD Arches of Septimius Severus built in Rome and Leptis Magna (Libya), his birth place.
211-212 AD Joint reign of Geta and Caracalla, (Geta murdered).
212-217 AD Reign of Caracalla, baths of Caracalla built in Rome.
235-284 AD Period of numerous shortlived military dictatorships.
251 AD Emperor Trajan Decius is killed by the Goths.
256 AD Persians take Antioch.
257-263 AD Germans invade Greece, Asia Minor, sack Athens.
271 AD Palmyrenes invade Alexandria.
283-390 AD LATE ROMAN EMPIRE
284-305 AD Restoration of Diocletian.
312 AD Constantine I defeats Maxentius at Milvia Bridge.
313 AD Edict of Milan, Christianity legalized.
375 AD Invasion of the Huns.
378 AD Emperor Valerian killed by the Goths at the battle of Adrianople.
378-393 AD Reign of Theodosius I, the last ruler of a unified Empire.
410 AD Goths under Alaric, sack Rome.
410-500 AD Visigoths take Spain, Burgundians and Franks: Gaul, Ostrogoths: Italy, and Vandals North Africa.