Egyptian Faience Ushabti of Djehuty-Ir-Dis
An ancient Egyptian faience ushabti. The mummiform figurine wears a tripartite wig and broad collar, his crossed hands hold hoes, a seed bag hangs from his back. An inscription down the front reading, "The illuminated one, the Osiris, the Great of Five, the God's Servant, the One who knows what exists, Djehuty-ir-dis, born to Nephthys-ity, justified."
Shabtis were first introduced in the Middle Kingdom as substitutes for the the mummy in case it was destroyed. During the Second Intermediate Period inscribed wooden figures called shawabtis (after the Egyptian word for wood, shawab) began to be placed in tombs. During the New Kingdom, shabtis assumed a new role as servant figures for the deceased. They were now depicted with agricultural equipment. By the Third Intermediate Period, the number of shabtis placed in the tomb was set at 401 (365 workers and 36 overseers). During the Late Period the tomb figures became known as ushabtis ('answerers'), these figures represented servants who would magically answer when called upon to perform agricultural duties for the Pharaoh (in the form of Osiris) in the afterlife. Their main function was to ensure the individual's comfort and freedom from daily labor in the next life.
Cf.: a shabti of Djehuty-Ir-Dis in the Liverpool Museum, inv. no 1971.242.
Formerly in a French private collection, the shabti box of Djehouty-Ir-Dis was acquired by the British Museum in 1837 (registration number 1837,0413.69).